(McIntosh, 1988a) (Plate 3-32)
1BS (1BL.1RS translocations) or 1R(1B) substitutions (Mettin et al., 1973; Zeller, 1973). Some wheat cultivars comprise both substitution and translocation biotypes (Zeller, 1973).
Low Infection Type
l- to 2.
S. cereale cv. Petkus. Most wheats with Sr31 were derived from wheat x rye hybrid derivatives produced in Germany in the 1930s (see Mettin et al., 1973; Zeller, 1973).
Huerta-Espino (1992) recorded a virulent culture in a collection from Turkey.
i: Federation*4/Kavkaz (RA McIntosh and CR Wellings, unpublished 1992); Thatcher*6/ ST-1.25, R.L.6078 (PL Dyck, pers. comm. 1986).
v: Aurora (Zeller, 1973); Kavkaz (Zeller, 1973).
All wheats with Lr26 and Yr9 (see Lr26, Yr9). Sr31 is present in many European wheats and some Chinese and USA wheats as well as being widely used in wheats distributed by the CIMMYT program (e.g. Bobwhite and Veery selections) and continues to occur at high frequencies in CIMMYT breeding populations.
Australia: Grebe; Warbler.
China: Feng-Kang 2; Feng-Kang 8; Jan 7770-4; Jin-Dan 106; Lu-Mai 1; Yi 78-4078. Dong Xie 3 Sr5; Dong Xie 4 Sr5. See Hu and Roelfs (1986).
CIMMYT: Alondra; Angostura 88; Bacanora 81; Bobwhite S; Cumpas 88; Curinda 87; Genaro 81 (=Veery#3); Glennson 81 (=Veery #1); Guasave 81; Mochis 88; Seri 82 (Veery #5); Ures 81 (= Veery #2). See Singh and Rajaram (1991) and Singh (1993). Many of these wheats or sibs are grown in other countries (Villareal and Rajaram, 1988).
Europe: Aurora; Benno; Bezostaya 2; Burgas 2; Clement; Kavkaz; Lovrin 10; Lovrin 13; Mildress; Neuzucht; Skorospelka 35; Weique; Zorba.
Indian Subcontinent: CPAN 1922; HUW 206; Pakistan 81; Sarhad 82. See Singh and Gupta (1991).
South Africa: Gamtoos (= Veery #3).
USA: Excel; Freedom; Salmon (USA). Siouxland Sr5 Sr24. Longhorn Sr24.
Use in Agriculture
The value of Sr3l as a source of protection against stem rust is difficult to determine. The widespread international distribution of wheats with Sr31 may reflect the broad agronomic adaptability of these materials rather than the unique contribution of stem rust resistance. Despite successful use in many areas, wheats with Sr31 have not been widely grown in Australia due to potential problems in bread-making. The only cultivars registered are Grebe, an Egret derivative used for biscuit (cookie) quality flour, and Warbler, a feed wheat. Other wheat derivatives with 1RS have stem rust resistance characterised by low infection types similar to those produced by lines with Sr3l. KW Shepherd and coworkers produced 1D.1RS (Koebner and Shepherd, 1986) and 1B. 1RS derivatives of Imperial rye, whereas The et al. (1992) described a gene presumably associated with 1AL.1RS in Amigo. No cultivar with 1RS from Imperial has been produced but several derivatives of Amigo are grown in the USA. The 1AL.1RS chromosome carries the gene Gb5 for resistance to greenbug (Schizaphis graminum). It is not known if the gene from Imperial rye and the gene in Amigo are the same as Sr31. The presence of Sr31 in wheat is readily confirmed by the concurrent presence of Lr26 and Yr9 (see respective sections) as well as by cytological and biochemical methods. These were reviewed or described by Javornik et al. (1991), May and Wray (1991), Gupta and Shepherd (1992).